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By contrast, certain propositions seem necessarily true, such as analytic propositions, e.g., "All bachelors are unmarried." The particular example of analytic truth being necessary is not universally held among philosophers.A less controversial view might be that self-identity is necessary, as it seems fundamentally incoherent to claim that for any x, it is not identical to itself; this is known as the law of identity, a putative "first principle".Put formally, it states However, it seems, too, that objects can change over time.If one were to look at a tree one day, and the tree later lost a leaf, it would seem that one could still be looking at that same tree.Parmenides denied change altogether, while Heraclitus argued that change was ubiquitous: "[Y]ou cannot step into the same river twice." Identity, sometimes called Numerical Identity, is the relation that a "thing" bears to itself, and which no "thing" bears to anything other than itself (cf. A modern philosopher who made a lasting impact on the philosophy of identity was Leibniz, whose Law of the Indiscernability of Identicals is still in wide use today.It states that if some object x is identical to some object y, then any property that x has, y will have as well.The metaphysical positions one takes on identity have far-reaching implications on issues such as the mind-body problem, personal identity, ethics, and law.
Again, it was understood to refer to the chronological or pedagogical order among our philosophical studies, so that the "metaphysical sciences" would mean "those that we study after having mastered the sciences that deal with the physical world" (St.
Thomas Aquinas, Expositio in librum Boethii De hebdomadibus, V, 1).
A person who does, or is doing, metaphysics is called a metaphysician.
A possible fact is true in some possible world, even if not in the actual world.
For example, it is possible that cats could have had two tails, or that any particular apple could have not existed.
Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics, ontology often deals with questions concerning what entities exist or may be said to exist and how such entities may be grouped, related within a hierarchy, and subdivided according to similarities and differences.